Refer to the 12-27 RNAV (RNP) X Rwy 22L for KDTW/DTW (Metro, Detroit MI) when necessary to answer the following questions:
d. RNP 0.30.
e. RNP 0.15.
f. Flight director or autopilot.
2. Select all that apply. To fly the approach, _______
a. authorization may be specified in OpSpecs, MSpecs, or an LOA.
b. the aircraft’s MEL should include the RNP AR equipment requirements.
c. the aircraft navigation equipment must meet a 0.15-nm lateral performance requirement.
d. aircraft must adhere to maximum speeds based on approach category during RF legs.
3. To fly the segment from ANSAH to DRBRN, the flight director must be capable of commanding a bank angle of up to 30°.
4. Select the true statement(s) regarding requirements/restrictions for flying the approach from MCOMB.
a. The autopilot must be capable of commanding a bank angle up to 25°.
b. The flightcrew must ensure that the local altimeter setting is set prior to DRBRN.
c. The navigation system must have a “Direct-To” function that can be used to fly to any procedure fix.
d. Vertical navigation may be provided by uncompensated baro-VNAV equipment if the temperature is 0° C.
5. Select the true statement(s) regarding simultaneous operations.
a. GPS is required.
b. ATC or ATIS will inform pilots that simultaneous approaches are in use.
c. A specific runway may be used for only one type of simultaneous operation.
d. Use of a flight director or autopilot providing RNAV track guidance is required.
6. Select all that correctly apply to the IAFs.
a. Maximum speed of 210 kts – all IAFs.
b. RF required – ROKKZ, SPRER, PUZEL, and PHREE.
c. Minimum altitude of 8000 ft MSL – SPRER and MCOMB
d. Mandatory altitude of 8000 ft MSL – SPRER and MCOMB.
e. Mandatory altitude of 9000 ft MSL – ROKKZ, ANSAH, and PUZEL.
7. Which apply to flying the initial approach segment?
a. A course of 277° from PUZEL to ESPYY.
b. A 10.2-nm RF leg from BLDNG to DRBRN.
c. A minimum altitude of 8000 ft MSL from PUZEL to JUULY.
d. A minimum altitude of 7000 ft MSL from MCOMB to DRBRN.
8. A descent from 7000 ft MSL to 2000 ft MSL on a course of 216° occurs during the intermediate segment of the approach.
9. The GPS equipment must display RNP 0.15 during the final approach segment to a DA of 941 ft MSL.
10. Select the true statement(s) regarding the final approach segment.
a. The RNAV glidepath angle is 3.0°.
b. RW22L is a fly-by waypoint that identifies the rwy threshold.
c. If the MALSR or REIL is inoperative, minimum visibility increases from RVR 24 to RVR 45 when flying to a DA of 941 ft MSL.
d. The landing minimums for this approach comply with a set of criteria that are similar to EU-OPS requirements.
1. c, e, f
The procedure may be flown from MCOMB without performing a radius-to-fix (RF) leg. RNP approaches may be flown with any type of equipment that meets the integrity requirements specified on the procedure chart, so GPS is not necessarily required. According to AC 90-101A, Approval Guidance for RNP Procedures with AR, a Class A terrain and warning system (TAWS) is required for all RNP AR procedures. Procedures with RNP values lower than 0.30, or with RF legs, require the use of an autopilot or flight director (FD) driven by the RNAV system – an RNP value of 0.15 is required to fly to a DA of 941 ft MSL.
2. a, b, d
According to AC 90-101A, in addition to meeting the equipment requirements, operators must obtain approval through OpSpecs, MSpecs, or letters of authorization (LOAs). An operator’s minimum equipment list (MEL) for the aircraft should address the equipment requirements for RNP AR instrument approaches. Guidance related to these equipment requirements is available from the aircraft manufacturer and from AC 90-101A. The RNP value designates the lateral performance requirement in nm increments associated with a procedure. In this case, minimums are designated for RNP values of 0.30 and RNP 0.15. A table in AC 90-101A provides maximum airspeeds throughout RF legs. For example, for initial and intermediate segments, a maximum airspeed of 150 kts applies to Category A and B aircraft, and 250 kts applies to Category C, D, and E aircraft.
According to AC 90-101A, for RF legs, the flight management computer (FMC), the FD, and the autopilot must be capable of commanding a bank angle up to 25° above 400 ft AGL, and up to 8° below 400 ft AGL.
4. c, d
For RF legs, the autopilot must be capable of commanding a bank angle up to 25° above 400 ft AGL. However, no RF legs are required when flying from MCOMB. Equipment requirements for flying an RNP approach procedure include a navigation
system with a “Direct-To” function that the flightcrew can activate at any time to any fix. Due to the reduced obstruction clearance inherent in RNP AR instrument procedures, the flightcrew must verify that the current local altimeter at the airport of intended landing is set no later than the final approach point/fix (in this case HULKA). Procedural note 3 in the Briefing Strip states that uncompensated baro-VNAV systems may be used as long as temperatures are within -10° C to 54° C.
5. a, b
AIM section 5-4-13 provides information regarding simultaneous approaches to parallel runways. These approaches are grouped into 3 classes – simultaneous dependent approaches, simultaneous independent approaches, and simultaneous close parallel PRM approaches. RNAV approach procedures that are approved for simultaneous operations require GPS as the sensor for position updating. Pilots are informed by ATC or ATIS that simultaneous approaches are in use. Depending on weather conditions, traffic volume, and the specific combination of runways, a runway may be used for different types of simultaneous operations, including closely spaced dependent or independent approaches. Pilots should ensure that they understand the type of operation that is being conducted, and ask ATC for clarification if necessary.
6. b, c
For all waypoints except MCOMB, a maximum speed of 210 kts and RF legs are required, as indicated on the planview by a note below the waypoint name and by the ballflag 1 note, respectively. A minimum altitude of 8000 ft MSL applies to SPRER and MCOMB, a minimum altitude of 9000 ft MSL applies to PUZEL, and a mandatory altitude of 9000 ft MSL applies to ROKKZ and PHREE.
7. b, c
According to the planview, from PUZEL to JUULY, a course of 277° and a minimum altitude of 8000 ft MSL apply. An RF leg at a minimum altitude of 7400 ft MSL applies from JUULY to ESPYY. From BLDNG and ANSAH waypoints, a minimum altitude of 7000 ft MSL applies to a 10.2-nm RF leg to DRBRN. From MCOMB to ESPYY, a minimum altitude of 7400 ft MSL applies with a descent to a minimum altitude of 7000 ft MSL from ESPYY to DRBRN.
ROUGE is identified as the intermediate fix (IF) on the planview. A descent from 3000 ft MSL to 2000 ft MSL to HULKA FAP on a course of 216° occurs during the intermediate approach segment.
AC 20-138D, Airworthiness Approval of Positioning and Navigation, says it is not necessary for navigation displays, particularly primary flight displays, to include an actual navigation performance (ANP) or RNP accuracy value. The displays only need to provide an alert if the RNP value for the specific operation cannot be met.
The glidepath angle of 2.85° is shown on the profile view and in the descent/timing conversion table. The runway threshold waypoint is coded as the letters RW and the runway number, and is a fly-over waypoint, as shown by the circle enclosing the waypoint symbol. An inoperative MALSR increases the minimum visibility from RVR 24 to RVR 45. However, runway end identifier lights (REILs) are not part of the approach light system (ALS), so do not affect the minimum visibility.